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The Future of the Americas in Global Governance














Mexico City

November 24 - 26, 2013 




VIDEO: Conference Highlights with COMEXI Associates.





Council of Councils Mission Statement

The defining foreign policy challenges of the twenty-first century are global in nature. To help direct high-level international attention and effective policy responses to these threats and opportunities, the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) has created a Council of Councils (CoC). The CoC is composed of twenty major policy institutes from some of the world's most influential countries. It is designed to facilitate candid, not-for-attribution dialogue and consensus building among influential opinion leaders from both established and emerging nations, with the ultimate purpose of injecting the conclusions of its deliberations into high-level foreign policy circles within members' countries.


Misión del Council of Councils

Los retos que definen a la política exterior del siglo XXI son de naturaleza global. Para ayudar a dirigir la atención internacional de alto nivel así como respuestas efectivas de política a las amenazas y oportunidades, el Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) ha creado el Council of Councils (CoC). El CoC está compuesto por veinte prestigiadas organizaciones de varios de los países más influyentes en el mundo. Está destinado a la facilitación de un diálogo cándido sin atribución y de la construcción de consenso entre reconocidos líderes de opinión de naciones desarrolladas y emergentes, con el propósito último de inyectar las conclusiones de sus deliberaciones a los círculos de política exterior de alto nivel dentro de los países de los miembros.

Hemispheric Meeting of Councils on International Relations Mission Statement

Every year, the Hemispheric Meeting of Councils on International Relations brings together leaders from nine countries of the Western Hemisphere to analyze and debate about pressing issues on the international agenda. Experts from the different organizations exchange experiences and opinions, and discuss about common challenges in the region. The Hemispheric Meeting promotes an informed and useful dialogue for decision-making, based on the important role that these Councils play in the public debate.


Reunión Hemisférica de Consejos de Asuntos Internacionales

Cada año, la Reunión Hemisférica de Consejos de Asuntos Internacionales reúne a líderes de nueve países del hemisferio americano para analizar y debatir los asuntos más relevantes de la agenda internacional. Especialistas de las diferentes organizaciones intercambian experiencias y opiniones, y discuten sobre los retos comunes a la región. La Reunión Hemisférica promueve un diálogo informado y útil para la toma de decisiones, sobre la base del papel relevante que tienen los Consejos en la reflexión pública.



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    Jaime Zabludovksy

    Jaime Zabludovsky Kuper is president of the Mexican Council on International Relations (Comexi), and holds a PhD in economics at Yale University. He started his career at the economics research office of Mexico's central bank, and soon joined the Economics Council for the Presidency. During the NAFTA negotiations he acted as Deputy Chief Negotiator. In 1994 he became Deputy Secretary for International Trade Negotiations, developing Mexico's trade negotiation strategy at WTO, OECD, APEC, FTAA; over viewing the implementation and administration of the NAFTA, and the Mexican FTAs with Chile, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Colombia and Venezuela. He also led Mexican trade negotiations with Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and Israel, as well as Bilateral Investment Treaties negotiations with a number of European countries and Argentina. He was also Ambassador to the EU and Chief negotiator for the Mexico-EU FTA, and headed the negotiations of the first transatlantic free trade agreement. As of 2005, he is a founding partner and Vice President of IQOM Inteligencia Comercial, a consultancy company. He is currently on the boards of Información Digital VERTICE (digital advertising), Cala de Ulloa (real estate development), Servicios Panamericanos de Seguridad (Mexican subsidiary of Brinks), Aseguradora Peña Verde, México Evalua, the Mexican Institute for Competitiviness (IMCO) and the Advisory Board of Accenture Mexico. On February 2007 he was named Executive President for the Mexican Council of the Consumer Goods Industry.


    Claudia Calvin

    Claudia Calvin is the Executive Director of the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations (Comexi) since 2011 and Founder of Mujeres Construyendo (, the first platform for female bloggers in Latin America, promoting women´s empowerment through ICT (Information and Communication Technologies). She is also External Advisor to the UN Women Office in Mexico. She has more than 18 years of experience as public officer both at the federal and legislative levels: Senate, Ministry of the Interior, Presidency of the Republic, among others. In the Mexican Presidency she served as Director General for National Information as well as Director General for International Activities and Gender.  In the private sector she has been consultant for World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Mexico, the Environmental Management and Decentralization Project (PROMAD) and  has also worked at the Mexican Bureau of the LA Times and The Miami Herald. She has been Lecturer at different universities in Mexico and abroad, including Universidad Iberoamericana (UIA), Universidad de las Americas (UDLA), Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de Mexico (ITAM), Universidad Autónoma de Queretaro, Centro de Estudios del Ejercito y la Fuerza Armada to mention a few. She was Visiting Researcher at Georgetown University. In the last years she has been a promoter of issues related to internet and information technologies in the international relations and democracy fields as well as a digital entrepreneur participating in diverse national and international forums. She is a frequent participant in news programs and a blogger for Animal Politico.

    Ph.D. in Political Science, Latin-American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO). M.A. in International Journalism, University of Southern California (USC). Bachelor’s Degree in International Relations, National University of Mexico.



    Andrés Rozental

    Ambassador Andrés Rozental served as career diplomat for more than 35 years, as Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Deputy Foreign Minister, Ambassador to Sweden, and Permanent Representative of México to the United Nations in Geneva, among others. Currently, Ambassador Rozental holds non-executive board positions in several important multinational institutions in Brazil and México. He chairs the Board of steelmaker ArcelorMittal Mexico and is an independent board member of ArcelorMittal Brazil, Ocean Wilson Holdings, and Wilson Sons in Brazil. He is a non-executive member of the HSBC board in Mexico, and holds advisory positions with EADS Mexico, Toyota, and Kansas City Southern de México. He is president of his own consulting firm, Rozental & Asociados, specialized in advising multinational companies on their corporate strategies in Latin America. He is a senior nonresident fellow at the Brookings Institution, on the operating board of Canada's Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) in Waterloo and a Senior Policy Advisor to Chatham House in London. Ambassador Rozental holds a master's degree in international economics from the University of Pennsylvania, and has been a foreign policy advisor to presidents Vicente Fox and Felipe Calderón.


    Eduardo Guerrero

    Eduardo Guerrero is an expert in organized crime and violence. He studied at El Colegio de Mexico, the University of Delaware, and the University of Chicago, and has received several academic awards. In 2008 he founded Lantia Consultores ( to advise governments and businesses on security and intelligence. He is a columnist for the newspaper Reforma and the magazine Nexos. His contributions have been published in books and magazines in Mexico, the U.S. and Britain.


    Mario Gabriel Budebo 

    Mr. Gabriel Budebo has spent most of his professional career in the Mexican Government, designing public policies in several areas such as taxation, development banking, public finance, pension regulation, and hydrocarbons. He has held relevant positions in the Mexican Government, such as Director General for Revenue Policy and International Fiscal Affairs, Director General for Development Banks, Chief of Staff to the Minister of Finance, President of the National Pension Commission, and Undersecretary for Hydrocarbons. He is currently Independent Director of al Pemex Gas and Basic Petrochemicals, a board member of Consejo Mexicano de Asuntos Internacionales, member to the Editorial Committee of the largest newspaper in Mexico (Periódico Reforma), and partner at the financial consulting group Mexico Infrastructure Partners. He has participated as a board member of Petróleos Mexicanos and its four subsidiaries, as well as for Nacional Financiera, Banco Nacional de Comercio Exterior, Banco Nacional de Obras y Servicios Públicos, the National Banking Commission, and the National Insurance Commission and has been president of several committees within these institutions. He was also president of the International Association of Pension Regulators. Mr. Budebo obtained his bachelor's degree in economics from Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM). He obtained a master's degree and pursued PhD studies, both in economics, at UCLA. Mr. Gabriel was awarded with the National Banamex Prize for Economics, Tlacaelel Prize for Economic Consulting, and received the Professional Merit Award from ITAM.

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    Stewart Patrick 

    Dr. Stewart Patrick is senior fellow and director of the program on international institutions and global governance at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). His areas of expertise include multilateral cooperation in the management of global issues; U.S. policy toward international institutions; and the challenges posed by fragile, failing, and post-conflict states. From 2002 to 2005 Dr. Patrick served on the secretary of state's policy planning staff, with lead staff responsibility for U.S. policy toward Afghanistan and a range of global and transnational issues. Following government service he was Research Fellow at the Center for Global Development, where he directed CGD's work on weak states and U.S. national security. From 1997-2002, he was research associate at the Center on International Cooperation at New York University. He has also taught at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) in Washington, DC. Dr. Patrick is the author or co-author of four books, as well as numerous articles and chapters on the subjects of multilateral cooperation, state-building, and U.S. foreign policy. He is also the executive producer of CFR's Global Governance Monitor, and writes the CFR blog "The Internationalist". Dr. Patrick received his doctorate in International Relations, as well as two Masters degrees, in International Relations and European history, from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar.



    Julia Sweig 

    Julia E. Sweig is the Nelson and David Rockefeller senior fellow for Latin America Studies and director for Latin America studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). Dr. Sweig also directs CFR's Global Brazil initiative. Dr. Sweig writes a bi-weekly column for Folha de São Paulo, Brazil's leading newspaper. She is the author of Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know (Oxford University Press, 2009, 2013) and Friendly Fire: Losing Friends and Making Enemies in the Anti-American Century (Public Affairs, 2006), as well as numerous publications on Latin America and American foreign policy. Dr. Sweig's Inside the Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro and the Urban Underground (Harvard University Press, 2002) received the American Historical Association's Herbert Feis Award for best book of the year by an independent scholar. Dr. Sweig serves on the international advisory board of the Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI). She was the Sol M. Linowitz professor of international relations, Hamilton College in 2011, and, from 1999 to 2008, served as a consultant on Latin American affairs for the Aspen Institute's Congressional Program. She holds a PhD from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.

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    Carlos Ivan Simonsen Leal 

    Carlos Ivan Simonsen Leal holds a Ph.D. in Economics from Princeton University, and is the president of FGV since 2000. He began his activities as a professor at the FGV Graduate School on Economics (EPGE), was Director of FGV-Business from 1992 to 1997, General Director of EPGE from 1994 to 1997, and FGV´s Vice-President from 1997 to 2000. He has also worked as a consultant for the Central Bank of Brazil and is member of several corporate boards.


    Elena Lazarou

    Elena Lazarou is head of the Centre for International Relations at the Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV), where she is an assistant professor in international relations. Her interests include European studies, foreign policy analysis and regional integration. Her current research focuses on the impact of the euro crisis on the EU's external relations; EU-Brazil relations; and Brazil – Turkey relations. She also coordinates a pilot program on think tanks and foreign policy in Brazil funded by the Ford Foundation and FGV's European Studies group, financed by the Brazilian Science and Technology Council (CNPq). Dr. Lazarou received a PhD in international relations from the University of Cambridge in 2008. She has held post-doctoral research positions at POLIS/University of Cambridge and the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Other posts previously held include: Head of the Euro-Mediterranean Observatory, Hellenic Centre for European Studies-EKEM (2009-2010); Research Associate at the Center for International Policy Research, University of Sheffield (2007-2008) and Visiting Scholar at Columbia University & NYU (2005). She is also affiliated with the Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP) and a visiting professor at Sciences-Po Grenoble.



    Carlos Quintella 

    Carlos Quintella holds an MSc in executive master of business management from FGV and an MBA from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. He specializes in crisis management, working with government agencies and academic institutions, and advising private sector clients in application of best practices in emergency response, recovery, business continuity, and risk mitigation. He also has substantive experience in policy analysis, strategic planning development, and stakeholder outreach. Mr. Quintella is currently the director of FGV Energy, a recently created research center in FGV focusing on energy related issues.



    Joisa Dutra

    Joisa Dutra is a Professor of Economics and currently the Head of the Center for Regulation at Getulio Vargas Foundation. Before that she completed a four year mandate as Commissioner for the National Electricity Regulatory Agency, ANEEL. She has been Visiting Scholar at the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government in the Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University) and Fellow under the Australian Leadership Award Fellowship Program. Joisa Dutra has also presented seminars and delivered lectures in the Americas and Europe, lecturing to both academic audiences and practitioners. Through her experience at the Center for Regulation she has been in charge of developing a strategy for the deployment of smart grid technologies in Brazil from the public policy as well as from the regulatory perspective. Her consulting experience includes governmental agencies and private institutions on the market design issues in regulatory environments and providing economic advice to various private and public organizations on regulatory issues in energy, water and transportation. 



    Sérgio Costa Werlang

    Sérgio Werlang holds a PhD in economics by Princeton University, and is currently a professor at FGV´s Graduate School of Economics (FGV/EPGE). He has previously worked as researcher at IMPA, director and executive director of BBM bank and Deputy Governor of the Brazilian Central Bank (BACEN). In this capacity, Werlang was responsible, among other tasks, for implementing the inflation targeting regime in Brazil. Later he joined Itaú as Senior Managing Director, and became executive vice president Itaú S/A in 2008, occupying this position until 2013. He has been advisor for companies as Braskem, the São Paulo Federation of Industries (FIESP), the Rio de Janeiro Federation of Industries (FIRJAN) among others. He is also part of several magazine´s editorial boards, such as Revista de Econometria, Revista de Analisis Economica, Revista de Economia Aplicada (FEA/USP) and the Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics (PIMES). Currently he is in the Board of ORT (Sociedade Israelita Brasileira de Organização, Reconstrução e Trabalho), director of the Museum of Modern Art of São Paulo (MAM-SP), and advisor to the president of FGV.


council of councils members 

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    Rohinton Medora 

    Rohinton Medhora is president of the Centre for International Governance Innovation, a non-partisan think tank located in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. CIGI's research programs focus on four themes: global economy; environment and energy; global development; and global security. Previously he was vice president of programs at Canada's International Development Research Centre, a research funder. He received his doctorate in economics in 1988 from the University of Toronto, where he also taught for a number of years. His fields of expertise are monetary and trade policy, international economic relations, and aid effectiveness. He has published extensively on these issues and is currently co-editing books on development thought and practice, Canada's relations with Africa, and Canada's role in the international financial system. He serves on the boards of the Institute for New Economic Thinking and the Partnership for African Social and Governance Research.


    Domenico Lombardi 

    Domenico Lombardi is director of CIGI's Global Economy program, overseeing the research direction of the program and related activities. He also serves as Chair of The Oxford Institute for Economic Policy, Vice Chair of New Rules for Global Finance Coalition, and sits on the advisory boards of the Bretton Woods Committee in Washington, the G20 Research Group and the G8 Research Group at the University of Toronto, and the Istituto Affari Internazionali in Rome. Mr. Lombardi is a member of the Financial Times Forum of Economists and editor of the World Economics Journal. In 2011, he served as the rapporteur for the High-Level Panel on the Governance of the Financial Stability Board. In 2009, Mr. Lombardi authored the report to the IMF Managing Director on IMF Governance Reform, "Fourth Pillar Report". Prior to that, Mr. Lombardi's career includes positions on the executive boards of international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. His academic interests focus on the global economy and currencies, global governance, the G20, the G8, and the reform of the international financial and monetary system. Mr. Lombardi has an undergraduate degree summa cum laude in banking and finance from Bocconi University, Milan and a PhD in economics from Oxford University (Nuffield College).

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    Steven Blockmans

    Steven Blockmans is a senior research fellow and head of the EU foreign policy unit of the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS). He is also Professor of EU External Relations Law and Governance at the University of Amsterdam (part-time), a visiting professor at the University of Leuven (Belgium), and one of the founding members of the Centre for the Law of EU External Relations (CLEER). He holds a PhD in law from Leiden University (Netherlands).

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    Victor Bulmer-Thomas

    Victor Bulmer-Thomas is Emeritus Professor of Economics at the University of London, and Honorary Professor at the Institute of the Americas, University College London. He is also a Senior Distinguished Fellow of the School of Advanced Study at London University and an Associate Fellow in the Americas Programme at Chatham House, where he was Director from 2001 to 2006; he was Director of the Institute of Latin American Studies, London University, from 1992 to 1998. From 1986-97 he was co-editor of the Journal of Latin American Studies. He is a Director of the New India Investment Trust and also of the JP Morgan Brazil Investment Trust. His publications include The Economic History of the Caribbean since the Napoleonic Wars (2012), (with Barbara Bulmer-Thomas) The Economic History of Belize: from 17th Century to post-Independence (2012), The Economic History of Latin America since Independence (2003), The Political Economy of Central America since 1920 (1987), and Input-Output Analysis for Developing Countries (1982). He is also coeditor of The Cambridge Economic History of Latin America (2006). He has received honours from Brazil, Colombia and the UK.

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    Günther Maihold

    Günther Maihold studied Sociology and Political Science and received his PhD in 1987 at the University of Regensburg. There he worked as a Research Fellow at the Institute for Scientific Policy and Public Law. He spent eight years working as a project manager in social policy consulting in Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica and at the Department for Latin America and the Caribbean of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation. In 1999 he was appointed Director of the Ibero-American Institute of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation in Berlin. Since June 2004 he has been Deputy Director of the German Institute for International and Security Affairs/SWP; He is currently on a sabbatical to assume the Cátedra Guillermo y Alejandro Humboldt at Colegio de México, in Mexico City. He is also member of the Reseach Center "Governance in Areas of Limited Statehood" (SFB 700- Free University of Berlin) with the project "Transnational Security Governance in Latin America", and Principal Investigator of the Graduate School of East Asian Studies at Free University of Berlin. Günther Maihold was lecturer at the University / GH Duisburg and at the Latin American Institute of the Free University of Berlin. Since November 2006 he has been an Honorary Professor in Political Science at the Free University of Berlin.

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    Memduh Karakulluçku

    Memduh Karakullukçu is the vice chairman and president of Global Relations Forum and the founding partner of the online legal informatics enterprise, His advisory work specializes in higher education, technology policy, and international economic and political affairs. He served as the senior advisor to the Chairwoman of Turkish Industrialists and Businessmen's Association (TÜSİAD) from 2007 to 2010. Previously, Mr.Karakullukçu was the founding managing director of Istanbul's leading science park, Istanbul Technical University (ITU) ARI Teknokent—currently an innovation community of over one hundred technology companies. During this period, Mr.Karakullukçu also served as the senior advisor to the President of ITU, the coordinator of the Law Technology and Policy program and the strategic advisor at the university's Center for Satellite Communications. He was a member of the academic staff at ITU. Earlier in his career, he worked as a specialist in structured finance at the London and Istanbul offices of an international investment bank (1992-1994). His previous academic work includes research commissioned by the IMF and the World Bank on the dynamics of Turkish debt markets. He has presented his work on technology and innovation policy at various international fora. Mr.Karakullukçu received his BS in electrical engineering and in economics at MIT, his MSc in Finance at the LSE and his JD at Columbia University. He is a member of the New York State Bar.

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    Thomas Gomart

    Thomas Gomart holds a Ph.D in History at Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, and is both the vice-president for strategic development and the director of the Russia/NIS Centre at IFRI (French Institute of International Relations). He is the editor of the trilingual electronic collection Russie.Nei.Visions. Gomart's academic and professional background has been closely related to post-Soviet space. As Lavoisier Fellow at the State Institute for International Relations (University-MGIMO – Moscow), Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Security Studies (European Union – Paris) and Marie Curie Fellow at Department of War Studies (King‟s College – London), Gomart has acquired a diversified international experience. He lectured on international affairs at the Special Military School of Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan (2002-2010). In 2008, he co-directed the Ifri/CSIS project Europe, Russia, and the United States: Finding a New Balance.

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    Sergey Kulik

    Dr. Sergey Kulik is the director for international development at the Institute of Contemporary Development. He is also a member of the Scientific Council of the Security Council of the Russian Federation and the Council for Foreign and Defense Policy. His former positions: director of the Department for Relations with the EU, Office of the Russian President; deputy director of the Foreign Policy Department of the Russian President; head of the Arms Control Center, Institute of the USA and Canada Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences; project leader at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).

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    Tan See Seng

    See Seng Tan is Deputy Director of the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Head of the Centre for Multilateralism Studies, and Associate Professor at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He is also a non-resident Global Ethics Fellow with the Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, New York, and Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore. A student of Asian security, he is the author/editor of 9 books and has published over 40 scholarly papers. His latest book is The Making of the Asia Pacific: Knowledge Brokers and the Politics of Representation (Amsterdam University Press, 2013). He regularly consults for the Singapore Government and regional organizations (such as ASEAN, the Asian Development Bank, etc.) and has been the principal investigator of numerous policy studies undertaken on behalf of those institutions. He has held visiting appointments at the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Australian National University, Griffith University, and Ritsumeikan Asia-Pacific University. He received B.A. (Honours) and M.A. degrees from the University of Manitoba, and a PhD from Arizona State University.

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    Virginia Comolli 

    Virginia Comolli is a Research Associate for Transnational Threats at The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) in London where she currently has responsibility for transnational organized crime, extremism, and security threats in West Africa and the Sahel. Upon joining the IISS she was first part of the Military Balance team conducting research on Sub-Saharan Africa. Until May 2012 she was a Research Analyst and Assistant to the Director of Transnational Threats and Political Risk, and focused on issues such as international terrorism, radicalisation, organised crime and drugs in West African and Latin America, conflict, cyber security and energy security. In this capacity she was temporarily seconded to the UK Ministry of Justice as an Expert Analyst. Virginia holds a Master's Degree in Intelligence and Strategic Studies from the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. 

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    Beata Wojna

    Beata Wojna is Deputy Director at the Polish Institute of International Affairs in Warsaw – a public think tank supervised by the Minister of Foreign Affairs - since 2012. She has been working at PISM since 2004 as researcher, program coordinator and team leader at PISM research office. Before starting her work in Poland she spent several years in Spain and in Belgium. She graduated from the Complutense University (1999) and holds a Ph.D. in Geography and History at the same university (1999-2004), benefiting from research grants at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles (2000-2001) and at the Complutense University (2002-2004). Her main areas of interest are Latin America, EU politics and Polish foreign policy. Being a political scientist and combining a political analysis with historical and comparative approach she authored and coauthored more than 25 publications: books, book chapters, reports and articles in Polish, English and Spanish.


hemispheric councils on international relations

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    Jeniffer Jeffs

    Jennifer A. Jeffs is the President of the Canadian International Council (CIC), Canada's non-partisan, international affairs institute. Dr. Jeffs is a member of the editorial boards of International Journal, and of Foreign Affairs Latinoamerica; a Director of Centro de Estudios y Programas Interamericanos (CEPI); a Director of the World Wildlife Fund, Canada; and a member of the Advisory Council of the Canada-Mexico Initiative. Dr. Jeffs former positions include Deputy Executive Director at the Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI); Founding Director of the Centro de Estudios y Programas Interamericanos (CEPI) based at ITAM in Mexico City, where she was also a professor in the Department of International Studies; and Assistant Director of the Canadian Affairs department at the Americas Society/Council of the Americas in New York City. Dr. Jeffs holds a Ph.D. in International Political Economy from the University of Toronto.

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    Luiz Augusto Castro Neves

    Luiz Augusto Castro Neves is Chairman of the Board of Trustees at the Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI). He holds a Master degree in Economics from the University College of University of London. Mr. Castro Neves is a career diplomat since 1968, graduated by the Rio Branco Institute with thesis on "The Civil Uses of Nuclear Energy - Policy Instrument Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons". He served in Embassies in Buenos Aires, London, Ottawa and at the Organization of American States (OAS) in Washington D.C. He was Ambassador of Brazil in Paraguay (2000-2004), China (2004-2008) and Japan (2008-2010). He was Professor of Economics at the Rio Branco Institute, at the Institute of Political Science and International Relations of Universidade de Brasilia and at the School of Post-Graduate Studies in Economics of Fundação Getúlio Vargas. In Brazil, he was Deputy Chief of Economic Affairs from the National Security Council, Executive Secretary for Strategic Affairs of the Presidency and Secretary General of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He was the Brazilian National Coordinator of the Rio Group. He is also a member of the Technical Board of the National Confederation of Commerce (CNC).


    José Botafogo

    Ambassador José Botafogo is a career diplomat and Vice-Chairman Emeritus of the Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI). He holds a Bachelor's degree in law (PUC-RJ), with an extracurricular course in Training in Economic Development Issues (CEPAL-1960). During the last 45 years, he held numerous diplomatic positions related to economic and trade matters. He has been Head of the Trade Policy Division of the Ministry of External Relations, Secretary for International Economic and Technical Cooperation of the Secretariat for Planning on behalf of the President and Consul General in Milan. He also served as Vice-President for External Relations of the World Bank, Undersecretary General for Integration, Economic Affairs and Foreign Trade of the Ministry of External Relations and was Minister for Industry, Trade and Tourism. He was sworn as Executive Secretary of the Chamber of Foreign Trade reporting to the Brazilian President. In 2000, he was appointed special representative to MERCOSUR. Finally, in 2002, he was appointed Brazilian Ambassador to Argentina. Currently, he is a member of CLCMRA law firm and member of the boards of several companies, such as the Foundation of Industries of the State of São Paulo – FIESP and the National Confederation of Trade (CNC).



    Roberto Fendt

    Roberto Fendt is the Executive Director of the Brazilian Center for International Relations – CEBRI. Dr. Fendt chaired the Committee on International Affairs at the American Chamber of Commerce of Rio de Janeiro, the Brazilian Association of Commercial Exporters (ABECE) and the Foreign Trade Board at the Commerce Federation of the State of São Paulo. He served, as executive, in the following functions: Deputy Director, Brazilian Institute of Economics, FGV, Chief-Editor of the Conjuntura Econômica Journal at FGV; among others in the private sector. Previously, Director of the Foreign Trade Area at the Banco do Brasil (CACEX), Member of the National Monetary Council, Executive Secretary of the Customs Policy Comission, and Superintendent of Study and Research at the Centro de Estudos de Comércio Exterior Foundation. He has also been Professor of Economics at the School of Post Graduate Studies in Economics at FGV, Professor of Macroeconomics at the Department of Economics and at the Institute of Economic Research of the University of São Paulo, Professor of Macroeconomics at the Department of Economics of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. He holds a PhD Degree in Economics from the University of Chicago (USA).

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    José Hugo Ernesto Palma

    Ambassador Palma is the executive president of the Peruvian Center for International Studies (CEPEI), president of the Program for Joint Studies of International Relations in Latin America (RIAL), and director of the Diplomatic Academy of Peru. He also serves as a member of the Peruvian Society of International Law and an expert on United Nations study groups on Confidence Building Measures, International Security, and Education for Disarmament. As a career diplomat, Hugo Palma served as vice minister and secretary general of the Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He was also Ambassador to Japan, Italy, FAO, and other International Organizations in Rome, Ecuador, and France; Permanent Representative to UNESCO, Brazil, Guyana and Suriname, and Yugoslavia; and Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations, New York. He holds a law degree from Catholic University, Lima and a bachelor's degree in international relations from the Diplomatic Academy of Peru. Ambassador Palma completed post-graduate studies in Oxford, Brussels, Washington, and Paris. He has held professorships in international law, diplomatic and consular law, international organizations, and international relations at the Diplomatic Academy of Peru, among other universities. Ambassador Palma is fluent in Spanish, English, French, and Portuguese and has authored several books, essays, and articles on international relations, security, disarmament, international law, and other subjects.



    Rosario Santa Gadea

    Rosario Santa Gadea holds a PhD in International Economics from Université de Paris Ouest. Former Fellow of The Weatherhead Center for International Affairs of Harvard University. Dr. Santa Gadea is currently Researcher and Coordinator of the Universidad del Pacífico Research Center for Economics, Business and International Relations, where she is also professor at the Master Program of Global Business Management. She has been Executive Secretary of the Peruvian Center for International Studies (CEPEI) and professor at the Diplomatic Academy. Other relevant positions were: National Coordinator of The Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA); Coordinator of The European-Latin American Institute (IRELA), Madrid; Advisor to Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Defense, Economics and Prime Minister of Peru; Official of General Secretariat of the Andean Community. She has also worked as International Consultant for the Inter-American Development Bank and its Institute for Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL); Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI); and The Economist Intelligence Unit, London. Her main interests are: international trade; regional and global integration; infrastructure, logistics, competitiveness and physical integration in South America; international relations Peru-Brazil; economic relations Latin America, Asia-Pacific and European Union.


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    Fernando Petrella

    Ambassador Fernando Petrella holds a master's degree from the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University. He joined the Argentine Foreign Service in 1965, and has been posted at the United Nations, the FAO and the OAS. He was Deputy Foreign Minister 1992-1997, Undersecretary for Foreign Relations 1991-1992 and 2002-2003. He was Permanent Representative to the United Nations 1997-1999. He is a professor at the Argentine Diplomatic Academy, a member of the Argentine Council on Foreign Relations executive committee and directed the master's program in international relations at the University of Belgrano. He regularly contributes to major newspapers and is a frequent guest on different television programs to discuss foreign policy.


    José María Lladós

    José María Lladós holds a master's degree in international relations from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). He taught Constitutional Law at the University of Buenos Aires Law School and was a legal advisor for the Argentine Chamber of Electronics Industries (CADIE) and consultant for the National Institute of Industrial Technology (INTI) and the Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL). He was Executive Secretary of the Argentine-Brazilian Business Council and member of the board of the Banco Hipotecario Nacional and the Sociedad Mixta Siderúrgica Argentina (SOMISA). He was Secretary of Defense Production at the Ministry of Defense during Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín's presidency and Secretary of Planning at the same Ministry during Fernando De la Rúa's presidency. He has also been an advisor to the Defense Committee of the National Chamber of Deputies. He is currently the director of Academic Affairs at the Argentine Council for International Relations (CARI) and partner at the Quevedo & Associates Law Firm.



    Daniel Gustavo Montamat

    Daniel Gustavo Montamat holds a PhD in Economics and Law (University of Córdoba- Argentina), and a masters in economics at the University of Michigan. His previous posts were as director of the Gas del Estado company (1985-86); President and CEO of YPF (87-89), and Argentina´s secretary of energy (1999-2000). Currently he teaches at the Buenos Aires University, and a consultant for the Interamerican Development Bank (BID) and the World Bank for energy issues.

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    Hernán Felipe Errázuriz

    Hernán Felipe Errázuriz is president of the Chilean Council on Foreign Relations (CCRI), columnist of Chile´s most read newspaper, member of the Minister of Foreign Affairs´ advisory council and board member of various private national and international corporations. He has been Minister of Mining and Energy (1981-1982), president of the Central Bank of Chile (1983-1984), Ambassador to the United States (1984-1988) and Minister of Foreign Affairs (1988-1990).


    Mario Correa Saavedra

    Mario Correa Saavedra is Executive Director of the Chilean Council on Foreign Relations (CCRI). He has been a consultant for the Institute of Chile, the Centre for Democracy and the World Bank, where he worked providing technical support and analytical framework for institutional development and regulatory issues related to the modernization and restructuring of the state in the context of legislative, financial and public sector reforms. For fourteen years he served as Cultural and Scientific Attaché at the Embassy of Chile to the United States. Before that he worked as editor of the University of Chile´s law journal, where he also taught constitutional law, and was Chief of Staff to the Minister of Education. He holds a bachelor degree in Law from the Faculty of Social and Legal Sciences, University of Chile.

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    Saúl Pineda Hoyos

    Saúl Pineda Hoyos holds a bachelor's degree in economics from the Medellin University and a post-graduate degree in economic politics from the Antioquia University. He has been a visiting scholar at Berkeley´s Urban and Regional Development Institute and is an international and political studies master's candidate at the Rosario University. He served as economic director at the Chamber of Commerce of Medellín and vice president of Civic and Social Management at the Bogota Chamber of Commerce. He was an advisor to the Secretary General of the Andean Community and has been a consultant to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), as well as a competitiveness director for Medellin, and the executive secretary for the Strategic Plan of Medellin and the metropolitan area. He currently serves as an advisor to the United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) and founding member of the Colombian Council for International Relations (CORI). Since January 2008, he is the director of the Center for Competitive Thinking Strategies at the Rosario University.


Invited Organizations

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    José Miguel Insulza

    José Miguel Insulza was elected OAS Secretary General on May 2, 2005, and reelected March 24, 2010. The Chilean politician has an accomplished record of public service in his country. At the beginning of his first five-year term as Secretary General, he pledged to strengthen the Organization's "political relevance and its capacity for action." A lawyer by profession, he has a law degree from the University of Chile, did postgraduate studies at the Latin American Social Sciences Faculty (FLACSO), and has a master's in political science from the University of Michigan. Until 1973, he was Professor of Political Theory at the University of Chile and of Political Science at Chile's Catholic University. He also served, until that year, as Political Advisor to the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Director of the Diplomatic Academy of Chile. He became involved in politics during his student years and served as Vice President of the Student Association of the University of Chile (FECH), President of the Center for Law Students of the University of Chile and President of the Chilean National Union of Students of University Federations of Chile (UFUCH). In the early 1970s, Insulza played an active role in Salvador Allende's Popular Unity government and, following the coup that brought General Augusto Pinochet into power, he went into exile for 15 years, first in Rome (1974-1980) and then in Mexico (1981-1988). In Mexico City, he was a researcher and then Director of the United States Studies Institute in the Center for Economic Research and Teaching (CIDE). He also taught at Mexico's National Autonomous University, the Ibero-American University, and the Diplomatic Studies Institute. Insulza was able to return to Chile in early 1988 and joined the Coalition of Parties for Democracy, the coalition that won the plebiscite against the Pinochet regime in October of that year. He has held numerous high-level posts in several Coalition governments. Under the presidency of Patricio Aylwin, Insulza served as Chilean Ambassador for International Cooperation, Director of Multilateral Economic Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Vice President of the International Cooperation Agency. In March 1994, under the administration of President Eduardo Frei, Insulza became Under-Secretary of Foreign Affairs and in September of that year was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 1999, he became Minister Secretary General of the Presidency, and the following year he became President Ricardo Lagos's Minister of the Interior and Vice President of the Republic. When he left that post in May 2005, he had served as a government minister for more than a decade, the longest continuous tenure for a minister in Chilean history.

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    Jordi Bacaria

    Jordi Bacaria is a professor of Applied Economics at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), as well as director of the journal "Foreign Affairs Latinoamérica", published in Mexico. He is also a member of FEMISE (Euro-Mediterranean Forum of Economic Science Institutes). Mr. Bacaria has been Dean of the Faculty of Economics at the UAB (1986-1988) and director of the Institute for European Studies (1988-1992, 1994-2000) at the UAB. From 2000 to 2009, he coordinated the Doctoral Program in International Relations and European Integration of the UAB. From 2000 to 2013, he has been co-director of the Institute for European Integration Studies in Mexico, an institution funded by the European Commission and the Autonomous Technological Institute of Mexico. He is the author of over a hundred publications (articles, book chapters and books) on economic integration, Latin America, Mediterranean economy, monetary institutions and public choice.

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    Alejandra Victoria Liriano De la Cruz

    Alejandra Victoria Liriano De la Cruz is Vice Minister for Foreign Relations at the Ministry of Foreign Relations of the Dominican Republic. Dr. Liriano's international diplomatic service is extensive, as well as her academic experience associated with various national and international universities, including administrative service as both executive director and coordinator of the international relations area of the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO). Dr. Liriano was also the coordinator of the Dominican Council for International Relations at the Global Foundation on Democracy and Development (FUNGLODE).



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